Effect of Chitosan and Naringin on Enteric Methane Emissions in Crossbred Heifers Fed Tropical Grass

By Rafael Jiménez-Ocampo , María Denisse Montoya-Flores, Esperanza Herrera-Torres,
Gerardo Pámanes-Carrasco, Jeyder Israel Arceo-Castillo, Sara Stephanie Valencia-Salazar, Jacobo Arango,
Carlos Fernando Aguilar-Pérez, Luis Ramírez-Avilés , Francisco Javier Solorio-Sánchez , Ángel
Trinidad Piñeiro-Vázquez and Juan Carlos Ku-Vera.

The increase in human population and the concomitant rise in demand for
animal protein have contributed to augment enteric methane emissions. It is imperative to reduce
methane, increase sustainable production, avoid the use of chemical compounds, and guarantee
quality products for the consumer. Chitosan and naringin possess antimicrobial properties, and
they have shown their capacity to reduce methane in in vitro trials. This study investigated their
effects as feed additives given to improve ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization and decrease
methane in crossbred heifers fed tropical grass. In in vitro experiments, chitosan and naringin at
three levels (0, 1.5, 3.0 g/kg) showed significant methane reductions when 1.5 g/kg of chitosan was
included. The in situ study did not reveal changes in rumen degradability with the inclusion of the
additives. However, in in vivo assays, chitosan and naringin at 1.5 or 3.0 g/kg dry matter intake or
the combination of both compounds (1.5 and 1.5 g/kg) given directly into the rumen did not induce
changes in rumen fermentation, methane production, or nutrient utilization. However, given the
promising evidence from other studies, more research needs to be conducted to clarify the potential
effects of chitosan and naringin in animal production.

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